Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J.L. (2007). Adherence and well-being in overweight and obese patients referred to an exercise on prescription scheme: A self-determination theory perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 722–740.
Objectives: Based on Self-Determination
Theory [SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination
in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press], this study examined differences
in perceived autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, self-determined
motivation, exercise behaviour, exercise-related cognitions and general
well-being, between overweight/obese individuals who demonstrated greater
adherence to an exercise on prescription programme and those who adhered
less. In addition, this study explored the motivational sequence embedded
in SDT by testing autonomy support as a predictor of psychological need
satisfaction, autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction as
predictors of the motivational regulations, and autonomy support, psychological
need satisfaction and the motivational regulations as predictors of behavioural,
cognitive and well-being outcomes.
Markland, D. (1999). Self-determination moderates the effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation in an exercise setting. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 21, 350-360.
According to E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory, perceptions of self-determination (SD) moderate the effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation (IM), with perceived competence only positively influencing IM under conditions of some SD. R. J. Vallerand's (1997) hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that SD and competence have only independent effects on IM. The aim of this study was to test these competing models. 146 women aerobics Ss (mean age 31.51 yrs) completed measures of SD, perceived competence, and IM for exercise. Moderated hierarchical regression revealed a significant interactive effect of SD and perceived competence. A plot of the regression of IM on perceived competence under conditions of high and low SD, however, showed that the interaction did not take the expected form. Variations in perceived competence positively influenced IM only under conditions of low SD. This suggests that it is particularly important to foster perceptions of competence among individuals low in SD.
Markland, D. & Hardy, L. (1997). On the factorial and construct validity of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: Conceptual and operational concerns. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 20-32.
The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) has been gaining acceptance in the sport and exercise domain since the publication of papers by McAuley, Duncan and Tammen (1989) and McAuley, Wraith and Duncan (1991) which reported confirmatory support for the factorial validity of a hierarchical model of intrinsic motivation. This paper argues that the results of these studies did not conclusively support the hierarchical model and that the model did not accurately reflect the tenets of cognitive evaluation theory (CET: Deci & Ryan, 1985) from which the IMI is drawn. It is also argued that a measure of perceived locus of causality is required to properly model intrinsic motivation. The development of a perceived locus of causality for exercise scale is described and alternative models, in which perceived competence and perceived locus of causality are held to have causal influences on intrinsic motivation, are compared with an oblique confirmatory factor analytic model in which the constructs are held at the same conceptual level. Structural equation modelling showed support for a causal model in which perceived locus of causality mediates the effects of perceived competence on pressure-tension, interest-enjoyment, and effort-importance. It is argued that conceptual and operational problems with the IMI as currently used should be addressed before it becomes established as the instrument of choice for assessing levels of intrinsic motivation.
Markland, D. & Tobin, V.J. (2010). Need support and behavioural regulations for exercise among exercise referral scheme clients: The mediating role of psychological need satisfaction. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 91-99.
Objectives: Based on predictions drawn
from self-determination theory (SDT: Deci & Ryan, 2000, The‘‘what’’
and the ‘‘why’’ of goal pursuits: Human needs
and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268)
this study examined specific differential mediating effects of psychological
need satisfaction in the relation between support for psychological needs
and the internalization of behavioural regulation for exercise.
Silva, M.N., Markland, D.A., Minderico, C.S., Vieira, P.N., Castro, M.M., Coutinho, S.R., Santos, T.C., Matos. M.G., Sardinha, L.B. & Teixeira, P.J. (2008). A randomized controlled trial to evaluate Self-Determination Theory for exercise adherence and weight control: Rationale and intervention description. BMC Public Health, 8, 234.
on the motivational model proposed by Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
provides theoretically sound insights into reasons why people adopt and
maintain exercise and other health behaviors, and allows for a meaningful
analysis of the motivational processes involved in behavioral self-regulation.
Although obesity is notoriously difficult to reverse and its recidivism
is high, adopting and maintaining a physically active lifestyle is arguably
the most effective strategy to counteract it in the long-term. The purposes
of this study are twofold: i) to describe a 3-year randomized controlled
trial (RCT) aimed at testing a novel obesity treatment program based on
SDT, and ii) to present the rationale behind SDT's utility in facilitating
and explaining health behavior change, especially physical activity/exercise,
during obesity treatment.
Silva, M.N., Markland, D.A., Vieira, P.N., Coutinho, S.R., Carraca, E.V., Palmeira, A.L., Minderico, C.S., Matos. M.G., Sardinha, L.B. & Teixeira, P.J. (In press). Helping overweight women become more active: Need support and motivational regulations for different forms of physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
This study analyzed mechanisms by which a one-year obesity treatment intervention
based on self-determination theory (SDT) influenced physical activity
level and whether motivational predictors differed for structured vs.
lifestyle forms of physical activity.